GAMRY INSTRUMENTS
Hersteller Hersteller




GAMRY PRODUCT CATALOG
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In this catalog you will find the complete range of Gamry Instruments: potentiostats, galvanostats, zero resistance ammeters (ZRA) and quartz microbalances including specifications, emphasis according to application, spectroelectrochemistry, laboratory course in electrochemistry, software and accessories.


POTENTIOSTAT/GALVANOSTAT
Gamry Interface 1010 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA; Grundgerät für die Gamry EISBox1010 und Load/Power-Supply Interface (LPI) Hochspannungs-Testsystem für elektrochemische Impedanzspektroskopie (EIS) bei 10V, 100V oder 1000V incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The Interface 1010 is a value oriented, general purpose potentiostat for almost all applications except for high current electrochemistry.

The "T(eaching)" version of the Interface 1010 can be purchased flexibly at a low entry level budget for almost all applications in electrochemical research and -industry. Later, if requirements increase, existing electronic components with higher specifications can be activated by means of a paid upgrade.
 
Gamry Interface 5000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA; Grundgerät für die Gamry EISBox5000 incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The Interface 5000 Potentiostat / Galvanostat / ZRA is a compact, inexpensive system for material development and condition testing of batteries, super capacitors and fuel cells

The Interface 5000 delivers a higher current of ± 5A in direct comparison with the Interface 1010. The maximum available working electrode potential is ± 6V. The additional electrometer allows the simultaneous tracking of both half cells of a battery, a supercapacitor or a fuel cell when using an embedded reference electrode including the whole cell in a single experiment. Due to this time saving additional experiments can be scheduled.
 
Gamry Reference 600+ Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA mit Hochfrequenz-Zellkabel (HF; 60cm) für Impedanzspektroskopie (EIS) bis max. 5 MHz incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The Reference 600+ is an evolution of the Reference 600 and continues to be used for demanding applications and basic research.

The Reference 600+ offers eleven current ranges between 60 pA - 600 mA at a maximum of ± 12 V at the working electrode. Two additional gain stages (10x / 100x) extend to an even broader current range of 13 decades, allowing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on very high ohmic surrogates between 5 MHz and 10 µHz with current resolutions down to 20 aA per bit using state-of-the-art microelectronics and oversampling. Careful selection of electronic components and design result in...
 
Gamry Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA für Korrosion (DC), Impedanzspektroskopie (EIS), Physikalische Elektrochemie (PHE), Pulsvoltammetrie (PV), Elektrochemisches Rauschen (ESA) und Elektrochemische Energie (PWR) incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The high-end potentiostat for all demanding applications in electrochemistry from very low to high currents.

The Reference 3000 offers eleven current ranges between 300 pA - 3000 mA at a maximum of either ±3A@±15V or ±1.5A@±32V at the working electrode. Two additional gain stages (10x / 100x) extend to an even broader current range of 13 decades, allowing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on very high ohmic surrogates between 1 MHz and 10 µHz with current resolutions down to 100 aA per bit using state-of-the-art microelectronics and oversampling. Careful selection of electronic components and design result...
 
Gamry Reference 3000AE Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA für Korrosion (DC), Impedanzspektroskopie (EIS), Physikalische Elektrochemie (PHE), Pulsvoltammetrie (PV), Elektrochemisches Rauschen (ESA) und für die Elektrochemische Energie (PWR) an Batterie-, Brennstoffzell- oder Superkondensator-Stapeln incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The well-known high-end Reference 3000AE Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA with eight additional auxiliary electrometers (AE).

With the eight additional channels of the Auxiliary Electrometer (AE) add-on option of the Reference 3000 Potentiostat / Galvanostat / ZRA, potential differences of either eight individual half cells of a stack or up to eight peripherical signal transducers can be measured. Each of the eight available electrometers (± 5 V vs. counter electrode potential) can clarify the impedance of a half cell in an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement performed over the entire stack or to simply measure eight additional...
 
Gamry Reference 3000AE Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA und Reference 30k Booster für Aufgabenstellungen in der Elektrochemische Energie (PWR) an Batterie-, Brennstoffzell- oder Superkondensator-Stapeln sowie elektrochemische Synthese bei großem Umsatzziel incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The Reference 3000 (AE) Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA high performance and multi-purpose basic unit can be combined with the Reference 30k Booster and is ideal for evaluating new highest-level technologies for batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors and high turnover electrochemical synthesis.

The Reference 3000 is already a high-performance system, but with the addition of the Reference 30k booster, it can serve even more demanding applications. You can therefore make a valuable contribution at the highest level in basic research, electrochemical synthesis, and electrochemical energy storage. The Reference 3000 basic instrument can either be equipped later with 8 additional auxiliary electrometers (AE; Auxilliary Electrometer) by means of a hardware upgrade, or you can opt for the Reference 3000AE.
 
Mit dem LPI1010 High Voltage EIS Test System begegnet Gamry Instruments den erforderlichen Änderungen, wie elektrochemische Energiespeicher für die Elektrifizierung unserer Mobilität getestet werden müssen. width=
Interface for loads and power supplies for EIS characterization of batteries and fuel cells available in three versions (10 V, 100 V and 1000 V)

Alternatives to fossil fuel energy sources are becoming more and more prevalent, and fuel cells and batteries are playing an important role in energy storage and conversion of these alternatives. However, their future success depends on continuously improving efficiency and performance, which you can now do much better with Gamry's LPI1010 Load- / Power-Supply Interface.


POTENTIOSTAT - MULTI-CHANNEL SYSTEMS
Gamry Interface1010 Bipotentiostat für Rotating Ring Disk Electrode (RRDE), Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM), Impedanzspektroskopie (EIS, FRA), Physikalische Elektrochemie (PHE), Cyclovoltammetrie (CV), Chronoamperometrie (CA), Chronopotentiometrie (CP), Batterieeinzelprüfung (Battery), Beschichtungen (Coating) incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The Interface 1010 Bipotentiostat System from Gamry is compact, flexible, and inexpensive for all kinds of electrochemical measurements using two channels.

Each channel of the Interface 1010 bipotentiostat with its eleven current ranges including 10x / 100x gain record currents from 100 pA to 1 A at ± 12 V working electrode potential. The Interface 1010 Bipotentiostat is shipped including a special cable for synchronization. Since the systems are floating from protective ground, synchronous operation without mutual interference is possible.
 
Gamry Interface 1010 8-Kanalpotentiostat; Grundgerät für die Gamry EISBox1010 und Load/Power-Supply Interface (LPI) Hochspannungs-Testsystem für elektrochemische Impedanzspektroskopie (EIS) bei 10V, 100V oder 1000V incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
Multi-channel systems are ideal for any application where significance can be increased by higher experimental throughput.

With the multi-channel potentiostat from Gamry, a single system can be flexibly configured from many channels for research purposes with high significance. Flexibility means to operate each channel individually, in groups or all together. Each channel covers either a current range from 100 pA to 1 A (IFC1010) or from 500 nA to 5 A (IFC5000) and can maintain a maximum potential of either ± 12V (IFC1010) or ± 6V (IFC5000) at the working electrode.
 
Gamry ECM8 (Elektrochemischer 8-Kanal-Selektionsschalter) für die Applikationen Korrosion, galvanische Beschichtungen (DC) und Dielektrika (EIS) incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The ECM8 (Electrochemical Multiplexer) with its limitation compared to multi-channel systems is suitable for any application where higher experimental throughput can increase the significance even by sequential measurements.

With the ECM8, the throughput of electrochemical experiments in the laboratory can be increased from one channel to a total of eight channels within a reasonable budget. The ECM8 is the ideal additional system for the application field of corrosion inhibitor development, corrosion testing methods and their field tests, assessment of the impedance of coatings and development of chemical sensors.
 
Gamry EIS Box 1010 für elektrochemische Impedanzspektroskopie (EIS) bei ±12 V je Zelle und bis max. 26 V in einem Zellen-Stapel incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The Gamry EIS Box 1010 consists of an Interface 1010 base unit and an electrochemical multiplexer optimized for impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on batteries, fuel cells and super capacitors up to ±12 V.

With the EIS Box 1010, the detailed characterization of multiple batteries using the sophisticated method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is intuitively possible and at the same time offers reliable results at high throughput. This efficiently accelerates tasks in quality assurance, material development and basic research of electrochemical energy storage devices.
 
Gamry EIS Box 1010 für elektrochemische Impedanzspektroskopie (EIS) bei ±12 V je Zelle und bis max. 26 V in einem Zellen-Stapel incl. schwebende Masse (galv. Trennung von der Schutzerdung) width=
The Gamry EIS Box 5000 consists of an Interface 5000 base unit and an electrochemical multiplexer optimized for impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on batteries, fuel cells and super capacitors up to ±6 V.

With the EIS Box 5000, the detailed characterization of multiple batteries using the sophisticated method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is intuitively possible and at the same time offers reliable results at high throughput. This efficiently accelerates tasks in quality assurance, material development and basic research of electrochemical energy storage devices.


LABORATORY COURSE / TRAINING / TEACHING
Interface 1010T Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA – Bestandteil des Starterpakets width=
The entry-level electrochemistry package consists of 5 laboratory experiments with digitally available operating instructions and accessories as well as the Gamry System Interface 1010T Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA - with this combination, the entry into electrochemistry is guaranteed to succeed at an attractive price.

Gamry´s Interface 1010T Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA and Starter Pack reduce 11 available experiments in electrochemistry from the Laboratory Course to a cost-efficient 5 experiments in order to make methods and theories of electrochemistry available to an even wider audience in an efficient and comprehensive way. Within the package you will receive the support you need to familiarize yourself, students or employees with the various methods of electrochemistry.
 
Gamry Praktikumsversuche in Elektrochemie mit Siebdruck-Elektrode (Platin oder Kohlenstoff) und Elektroden-/Zellkabel-Schnittstelle für den qualitativen- und quantitativen Einzeltropfennachweis von elektroaktiven Spezies bis ca. 0.1 ml width=
The Laboratory Course in Electrochemistry is a modular laboratory kit meant as a comfortable and understandable introduction to electrochemistry for students or research assistants.

Gamry´s Laboratory Course in Electrochemistry teaches the methods and theories of electrochemistry efficiently and comprehensively. With the combination of a Gamry system at an entry-level price, a basic kit and the choice out of a total of 11 individual laboratory experiments, you will receive the support you need to familiarize yourself, students or employees with the various methods of electrochemistry.


SOFTWARE
Gamry Software Korrosion (DC) für vielfältige elektrochemische Korrosionsprüfmethoden (Tafel, Polarisationswiderstand, Rp/Ec-Trend, etc.). width=
Gamry has developed its own software for each important application in electrochemistry and offers a very simple and intuitive handling through open source scripting, flexible and uncomplicated, even the customized experiment as well as with other programming languages such as LabView, C++, etc.

In a Gamry system, the electrochemical experiment consists of two separate operations, each in its own software environment. The recording of the measured data is done with modifiable scripts programmed in "Explain" in the Gamry Framework and their evaluation with modifiable Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts in the Echem Analyst.
 
DigiElch Simulation CyclicVoltammetry (CV), ChronoAmperometry (CA), Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV), Fourier-Transform CyclicVoltammetry (FT), Multi-Sine Impedance (IMP) und ComPosed Scan Voltammetry (CPS) width=
DigiElch is a simulation program with a unique selection of different functions for a variety of electrochemical experiments

With DigiElech, electrochemical reactions on typical electrode geometries, thin film electrode arrays and on two-dimensional microelectrodes can be simulated very accurately. The voltage drop due to the uncompensated electrolyte resistance or iR drop as well as charge and discharge currents through the electrochemical double layer can also be taken into account during simulation.


QUARTZ MICROBALANCE
Gamry eQCM 10M für Medizinprodukte, Biosensoren, Neurowissenschaften, Abtastung der gesamten Zelle und elektrische Stimulation width=
The eQCM 10M quartz microbalance from Gamry can be used in a very wide resonance frequency range in measuring cells with different holders and crystals for many applications with high information density.

Afterwards setting a crystal into its specific resonant oscillation between 1 MHz and 15 MHz, Gamry's impedance analyzing eQCM 10M monitors not only the series (fs) but also the parallel resonant frequency (fp) without additional effort to eliminate interfering parasitic capacitances.


SPECTROELECTROCHEMISTRY
Spektroelektrochemisches Zell-Kit mit 10 mm optischer Weglänge incl. Platinnetz-Arbeitselektrode und Platin-Gegenelektrode sowie optionale Referenzelektrode width=
For synchronization of spectroscopic information with the electrochemical change of a redox pair Gamry offers the right system from UV to NIR

The Gamry spectroelectrochemical system is designed to combine electrochemical techniques with standard spectroscopic methods such as absorption, transmission, and fluorescence in the UV-VIS and VIS-NIR range. Both methods are synchronized either together in the Gamry Framework software or by spectrometer triggering in separate software environments for Gamry potentiostat and spectrometer.
 
Mittels Raman-Spektroelektrochemie und dieser Messzelle können Aufgaben-stellungen im Bereich Kunst, Archäologie, Biowissenschaften, medizinische Diagnostik, Polymere, chemische Prozesse, Halbleiter, pharmazeutische Industrie, Umweltwissenschaften, Raman-Mikroskopie, forensische Analyse, Gemmologie, Lehre, Qualitätskontrolle und Grundlagenforschung beantwortet werden width=
Synchronization of electrochemical changes of a redox reaction with complex scattered light spectroelectrochemistry or Raman spectroelectrochemistry

Raman spectroelectrochemistry combines the near-surface identification and interpretation of inelastic scattering by rotational, vibrational and phonon transitions with electrochemical redox reactions. These transitions can be triggered at the working electrode or molecules bound to it after excitation with a monochromatic light source of high power density (laser)


GAMRY ACCESSORIES FOR ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Leitfähigkeitsmesszelle für Membranen (Protonen- und Ionenleitfähigkeit) width=
The MK 3 simulates with high accuracy typical fuel cell conditions for conductivity measurements via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in combination with the Gamry System Reference 600+ or Interface 1010E.

The fumatech MK 3 conductivity cell is designed for measuring the proton conductivity and the general ionic conductivity of membrane samples in a temperature range from room temperature up to 200°C with an additional potentiostat. The measurements can be performed under selected humidification as well as in dry condition. Suitable potentiostats for operation with the MK 3 are e.g. the Gamry Reference 600+ Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA or the Gamry Interface 1010E Potentiostat/GalvanostatZRA).  
 
Evaluierungsmesszelle für Batteriematerialien (LIB) incl. Halter mit vier Normschliffen (NS14/20) für 25 ml Zellvolumen; leicht zu reinigende Rundprobe, Folienprobe oder 1.5 mm Substrat-Halter, luftdicht verschließbare konische PTFE-Verbindungen. Montage in der Handschuh-Box und elektrochemische Tests im Freien sind möglich width=
The design of the Lithium Battery Materials Cell Kit allows very flexible investigation of electrode materials of a lithium-based galvanic cell.

The Lithium Battery Materials Cell Kit is available in the versions "standard", "half-cell" and "whole cell" and enables very flexible mounting and dismounting of up to three electrodes made of foil, wire or bulk material in a lithium-based galvanic cell within a glove box.
 
Gamry Universal-Batterie-Halterung (UBH) mit flexibler Kontaktierung und max. 30 A width=
The all-rounder among battery holders - designed for cylindrical 18650 cells as well as button cells - with high flexibility in dimensions and connection options

With the Universal Battery Holder (UBH) a variety of batteries can be connected to all available Gamry Instruments systems - from Interface 1010 to Reference 3000 (AE) including Reference 30k Booster - with a true “four-terminal Kelvin-type” contact, cycled up to 30A and characterized in terms of their impedance.
 
Gamry Batterie-Halterungen mit niedriger Induktivität für zwei Knopfzellen der Typen CR2016, CR2025 und CR2032 oder zwei zylindrische 18650 Zellen optional in Serie width=
For electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on the coin cell types CR2016, CR2025 and CR2032 or on the cylindrical 18650 cell

Gamry´s Low Inductivity Battery Holder for cylindrical cells (18650) and coin cells (CR2016, CR2025 and CR2032) can reduce unwanted impedances due to the cable connection and contact impedances to a minimum thanks to the four-terminal Kelvin-type gold-plated contacts. The leads on the printed circuit board also ensure reduced inductive crosstalk with about 500 pH to 5 nH.
 
Gamry Batterie-Halterung für Pouchzellen mit flexibler Kontaktierung bis max. 30 A width=
Flexible battery holder for pouch cells to characterize different types of pouch cells with different dimensions

With the Pouch Cell Holder a variety of pouch cell types can be connected to all available Gamry Instruments systems for reproducible and reliable measurement results with a true “four-terminal Kelvin-type” contact, cycled up to 30 A and characterized in terms of impedance.  
 
Die RDE710 regelt stationäre konstante Drehzahlen ebenso hervorragend wie Beschleunigung/Verzögerung für Anwendungen, bei denen die Drehzahl moduliert werden muss width=
RDE710 Rotator for RDE, RRDE and RCE is designed for hydrodynamically controlled electrode reactions both for the characterization of catalysts and for determining flow-induced corrosion rates.

The RDE710 - Rotating Disk (RDE), Ring Disk (RRDE) or Cylinder Electrode (RCE) from Gamry is a fast DC permanent magnet motor with low inertia. Between 50 rpm and 10.000 rpm, a wide variety of materials in coordination with the shaft and electrodes can be controlled manually or digitally in conjunction with a potentiostat.
 
Faraday-Käfig z.B. für große Korrosionsmesszellen, mit Durchführungen für Zellkabel und Schläuche zum Temperieren und Spülen mit Inertgas width=
The successor to the Gamry VISTASHIELD continues to provide effective shielding from environmental electronic noise for demanding measurements at very low current levels and even with large measuring cells.

Like its predecessor, the collapsible Faraday cage offers efficient shielding from electrical interference signals from the laboratory environment (rotary pumps, fluorescent tubes, etc.). The spacious interior allows the accommodation of a wide variety of even larger electrochemical measuring cells such as Gamry's Dr. Bob's cell, voltammetry measuring cells or Gamry's multipurpose corrosion measuring cell. The cage can also accommodate an IMPS/IMVS setup for characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells or cells for spectroelectrochemistry from UV/VIS to NIR or Raman.
 
Spitzkolben des Dr. Bob´s Messzellen-Sets für 1 ml – 30 ml Elektrolytvolumen incl. zwei Normschliffen (2x NS14/20) und drei Ace-Einschraubgewinden (3x #7) zur Aufnahme von zylindrischen Arbeitselektroden (6.5mm – 7.5mm) mit Platin-(Pt), Gold-(Au) oder Glassy Carbon (GC) Makro- (3mm) oder Mikro-Disk (10µm/11µm) width=
Dr. Bob´s Cell Kit is made entirely of inert materials and is used in a variety of applications to characterize unknown electroactive species.

Dr. Bob's Cell Kit can be used for various applications such as studies on enzymes and catalysts, electrochemical sensors, galvanic cells, redox potentials of inorganic complexes, etc. with micro and macro working electrodes made of platinum, gold or glassy carbon. Alternative electrode materials must be made available in holders of 110 mm length and diameters between 6.5 mm and 7.5 mm.
 
Mehrhalskolben des Euro Korrosion Messzellen-Sets für 125 ml – 175 ml Elektrolyt-volumen mit zentralem Normschliff (NS24/40), zwei Normschliffen (2x NS14/20) und zwei #7 ACE-Einschraubgewinden width=
The Euro Cell Kit is the entry-level model for electrochemical corrosion measurements on cylindrical specimens

The Euro Cell Kit is designed for electrochemical corrosion measurements in 125 ml - 175 ml electrolyte volume. The components of the Euro Cell Kit have been selected for maximum chemical resistance, but nevertheless do not allow the use in hydrofluoric acid (HF) or in alkaline electrolytes.
 
Messzellen-Set zur Bestimmung der kritischen Lochfraßtemperatur bzw. „Avesta-Steel“ Zelle inkl. Infusionsset für entionisiertes Wasser bei langsamen Dosierraten width=
With Gamry´s FlexCell Cell Kit the critical pitting temperature is determined while avoiding the effects of crevice corrosion on flat specimens.

With Gamry´s FlexCell the critical pitting temperature on flat specimens can be determined with the flooded contact seal of "Avesta Steel" while avoiding crevice corrosion.
 
Glasgefäß (1l für ASTM G5, G59 oder G61) ohne Heiz-/Kühlmantel und separate Deckelplatte des Mehrzweck Korrosionsmesszellen-Sets mit Arbeitselektrode, zwei Graphit-Gegenelektroden, Referenzelektrode in einer beweglichen Luggin-Kapillare, Inertgas-Spülung und optionale Feststoff-Zugabe width=
The design of the MultiPort Corrosion Cell Kit allows easy cleaning and a high degree of flexibility for electrochemical corrosion experiments on many sample geometries.

The MultiPort Corrosion Cell Kit is designed for ease of use, reliability and easy cleaning. In addition to electrochemical corrosion experiments at a constant temperature, the optional heating and cooling jacket also allows temperature-dependent investigations for better elucidation of the heterogeneous redox reaction system in an electrolyte volume of 1000 ml.
 
Symmetrische Messzelle für galvanische Korrosion oder elektrochemisches Rauschen ohne Heiz-/Kühlmantel mit der Einspannvorrichtung und Kontaktierungsvorrichtung für die Arbeitselektrode auf der linken Seite und der Gegenelektrode aus Graphit bzw. einer zweiten Metallprobe auf der rechten Seite width=
The ParaCell Kit for galvanic corrosion measurements and electrochemical noise measurements enables the investigation of many flat samples either against a graphite counter electrode or a second working electrode in symmetrical arrangement.

With the ParaCell Kit for Flat Specimen the working and counter electrodes are brought into contact with each other via the electrolyte capacity of 300 ml and identical electrode surface areas. Cell and electrode geometry meets the requirements for measurements of electrochemical noise as well as galvanic corrosion currents using a Zero Resistance Ammeter.
 
Korrosionsmesszelle oder EIS-Messzelle für Beschichtungen mit Probenkörper, PTC1 – Klebemaske (1 cm2, 3 cm2 oder 10 cm2) zur Unterdrückung von Spaltkorrosion, Gamry Referenzelektrode (SCE oder Ag/AgCl) und enthaltene Gegenelektrode aus Graphit width=
The Paint Test Cell Kit is the smallest and most cost-effective electrochemical measuring cell kit from Gamry.

For the investigation of corrosion processes on coated specimens or bare metal surfaces in masked surface areas, the Paint Test Cell Kit (PTC1) is so cost-effective that many users appreciate Gamry's smallest electrochemical cell with an electrolyte volume of approx. 40 ml also for the parallel investigation of several specimens side by side.
 
Optische Bank mit LED, Photodiode und Farbstoffsolarzelle zur Bestimmung der optischen Leistung von LEDs, des Kurschlussstroms, des Leerlaufpotentials, des Leistungsmaximums gegenüber dem theoretischen Leistungsmaximum, des Füllfaktors und des Wirkungsgrads von Farbstoffsolarzellen width=
This experimental setup of a synchronized bipotentiostat and an optical bench is used for the detailed characterization of dye solar cells

For the characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC's) with the Dye Solar Cell Testing Kit (IMPS/IMVS) light from LEDs of discrete wavelengths (470 nm, 530 nm, 590 nm, 617 nm, 625 nm and 940 nm) is focused on the active area of the dye solar cell and the response to the irradiated light is measured. For electrochemical characterization, a bipotentiostatic setup is used in which one potentiostat drives the LED and a second potentiostat tracks the response by recording data...
 
Silber/Silberchlorid (Ag/AgCl), Quecksilber/Quecksilberchlorid (Hg/Hg2Cl2 oder SCE), Quecksilber/Quecksilbersulfat (Hg/Hg2SO4), Silber/Silber-Ion (Ag/Ag+ für organische Elektrolyte) und Quecksilber/Quecksilberoxid (Hg/HgO für alkalische oder fluoridhaltige Elektrolyte) width=
The selection of the correct reference electrode determines the quality for electrochemical measurement results and their lifetime.

High quality electrochemical measurements require a stable reference electrode potential and a low impedance reference electrode junction or frit. In contrast, inaccuracies in potential measurement due to an unstable reference electrode can cause erraneous results whereas a high impedance reference electrode frit in the range of several kΩ causes potentiostat oscillation.
 
Elektrochemische Einwegsensoren mit 12 mm2 Arbeitselektrode (Pt, C), 30 mm2 Gegenelektrode (C) und 0.6 mm2 Referenzelektrode (Ag/AgCl-Paste) width=
Working electrodes of different dimensions and inert materials

Screen printed-, macro and micro working electrodes for analytical electrochemistry and basic physical electrochemistry
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